Index » Euro coins
Euro Coins catalog with values
The European currency was introduced on January 1, 2002, but coins were minted earlier. Therefore, in Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Finland and France, you can find euro and euro cent coins with the dates 1999, 2000 and 2001, although in these years the national currency was still in circulation in the EU countries.
The design of the coins was developed so that each EU country can put their own images on them, which will indicate the issuing country. Therefore, one side (reverse, with a face value) for all coins of the united Europe is standard, and the second (obverse) for each country has its own.
Common side of euro coins
2 and 1 euro, 50, 20 and 10 cents until 2007
Map of Europe showing only the member countries of the European Union, six lines with stars at each end.
2 and 1 euro, 50, 20 and 10 cents after 2007
Complete map of Europe, six lines with stars at each end.
5, 2 and 1 eurocent
Globe, six lines with stars at each end.
Euro coins by the countriesAndorra
Spain commemorative euro
Circulation euro coins by the face values2 euro
50 euro cent
20 euro cent
10 euro cent
5 euro cent
2 euro cent
1 euro cent
From the European Coal and Steel Community to the European Union
History knows many examples of the unification of a different number of states into political and economic unions.
Even in the XIV-XVI centuries. in Europe there was a commercial Hanseatic League, which united the free cities of Germany and had representation in other European powers. Within the framework of the union, a monetary agreement was concluded, according to which coins of a single sample were minted.
To EU Member States of the Eurozone (18)
To EU countries obligated to join the Eurozone (8)
To EU countries outside the Eurozone (2)
To Non-EU countries using the euro by agreement (4)
In Non-EU Territories using the euro without agreement (2)
We should also remember the Latin Union. Formed in 1865 by Belgium, Italy, France and Switzerland, it was based on the bimetallic standard. But wars and the depreciation of currencies destroyed the union.
After the Second World War, one of the main common ideas was the preservation of peace on the planet in general and in Europe in particular. In the late 1940s some European leaders came to the conclusion that the only way to save peace is to unite the two most influential powers in Western Europe - Germany and France.
One of the initiators of the idea of European integration was the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, who in 1950 proposed a gradual merger of the whole of Europe. The first step towards this was to be the integration of industry - coal and steel. So, on April 18, 1951, an agreement was concluded between six European states: Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France and the Federal Republic of Germany on the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which entered into force on July 25, 1952.
The activities of the ECSC turned out to be so successful that a few years later it was decided to further integrate the economies of European states. The next important step was the signing of an agreement on the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC), as well as the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) on March 25, 1957 in Rome.
Already eight years later, in April 1965, an agreement was signed in Brussels, according to which the institutions of all three communities were merged into one structure. So there was a single Council and a single Commission
1. Bimetallism (from Latin bis twice and metallum metal) is a monetary system in which the role of the universal equivalent is assigned to two noble metals (usually gold and silver). In various forms, bimetallism existed in Antiquity, the Middle Ages and the New Age. In the Latin Union, the ratio between gold and silver was 1:15.5. At the end of the XIX century. the bimetallic standard was replaced by the gold standard, which is based on gold.
European Communities. The treaty entered into force on July 1, 1967.
March 13, 1979 was formed by the European Monetary System with a single currency - ECU.
On February 7, 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was concluded, which laid the foundation for the further development of cooperation in foreign policy and security, legal proceedings and internal affairs, as well as the creation of an economic and monetary union, including the introduction of a single currency. It was the Maastricht Treaty that legally secured the formation of the European Union.
On June 1, 1998, the European Central Bank (ECB) was established, the main functions of which were:
• development and implementation of the monetary policy of the eurozone;
• maintenance and management of the official exchange reserves of the euro area countries;
• issue of paper money;
• adoption of basic interest rates;
• maintenance of price stability in the euro area.
The bank's headquarters is located in Germany, in Frankfurt am Main.
On January 1, 1999, a new currency appeared on the world market - the euro, which became the monetary unit of all EU members, with the exception of Great Britain, Denmark and Sweden. For three years, the new currency in a non-cash form functioned on a par with the national ones. From January 1, 2002, citizens of 12 states began to use new coins and banknotes. And already from June 1, 2002, the single currency becomes the only legal tender in the member states of the euro area.
Today the European Union includes 28 states. Of these, in 18 member countries of the eurozone, the euro is the only legal tender.
medium: in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain (with the Canary Islands and two autonomous cities on the African coast: Ceuta and Melilla), Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands (excluding the Antilles ), Portugal (with the Azores and Madeira), Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France (with overseas territories: Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Mayotte, Reunion, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, as well as French Southern and Antarctic Territories), in Estonia.
The actual area of influence of euro cash is much wider. Based on currency agreements with the European Union, four dwarf states - Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino and Monaco - received the right to use the euro as the official currency, as well as to mint their own euro coins. Without concluding agreements with the European Union, Montenegro and Kosovo use the single European currency, which previously used the German mark as the official currency; British military bases on the island of Cyprus - Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
Some overseas possessions of France: New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna, French Polynesia - retained the French Pacific franc as the monetary unit, which, however, is now pegged to the euro.
Also pegged to the euro are the CFA franc, which is used by 14 African countries, as well as the Cape Verdean escudo.
In addition, the euro is the second world reserve currency after the US dollar.
2. ECU (English European Currency Unit - European currency unit) - in 1979-1998. unit of account of the European Economic Community, and then the European Union. The ECU did not exist in cash (with the exception of individual issues of ECU-nominated medals dedicated to various memorable dates, as well as ECU-nominated souvenirs). On January 1, 1999, the ECU was replaced by the euro in a ratio of 1:1.
The name of the new currency was approved at the meeting of the European Council on December 15 and 16, 1995 in Madrid. After lengthy discussions, the proposal of the German Minister of Finance Theodor Weigel to name the new currency "Euro" (officially Euro, although there are also national spellings: Latvian. eiro, Lit. euras, Slovenian. evro, Malt. ewro, Hung. Euro) was accepted. This simple word, although it sounds slightly different in different languages, is understandable to all the inhabitants of Europe - a part of the world named after the daughter of the mythical Phoenician king, abducted by Zeus, who turned into a bull.
The word "euro" is not declined in all states of the monetary union when indicating the amount of money (in combination with a numerical value). Form
plural can be formed depending on the grammatical rules of the official language of a particular country. So, for example, if in French it is 100 euros, then in Slovenia it is 100 evri.
The official name of the monetary unit is the cent (sometimes the term "euro cent" is used). 1 euro is equal to 100 cents. In various states, their colloquial names for small coins have been adopted. This is a santimo in France, a centesimo in Italy, a mite in Greece, and so on.
The euro has its own graphic symbol: €. Officially, this symbol of the single currency was introduced on December 12, 1996.
According to the official specification, the euro sign is a combination of the Greek epsilon as an indicator of the significance of European civilization, the letter of the Latin alphabet E, denoting Europe, and parallel lines crossing the sign, denoting the stability of the currency. The symbol should be printed in yellow on a blue background.
The winning design was allegedly created by a team of four, whose names were not disclosed. This version was disputed by Arthur Eisenmenger, who claimed that it was he who invented this sign shortly before he retired in mid-1974.
It is worth mentioning here that back in 1972, a series of Confoederatio Europaea medals was issued, on the front side of which there is a graphic sign, very similar to the modern euro symbol.
Medal of the 1972 Confoederatio Europaea series, which depicts a sign similar to the modern euro sign.
3. Arthur Eisenmenger (Arthur Eisenmenger, 1914-2002) - former leading graphic designer of the European Community. It is also considered one of the authors of the European flag and the CE mark, which indicates that the product is not hazardous to health and is harmless to the environment.
4. They were issued and nominated in the ECU, but they do not have any legal tender status, therefore, strictly speaking, they are only souvenirs.
The location of the euro symbol in relation to the numbers denoting the denomination varies in different states of Europe. Despite the fact that it is officially recommended to place a sign before a numerical
value (when indicating the price, for example), in each country the euro sign is placed in the same way as was customary for national currencies that preceded the euro.
So the same, but so different
Monetary union banknotes exist in the following denominations:
• banknotes: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 euros;
• coins: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cents, as well as 1 and 2 euros.
Often distinguishes three nominal groups of euro coins:
• lower denominations (1, 2 and 5 cents);
• average denominations (10, 20 and 50 cents);
• senior denominations (1 and 2 euros).
While euro banknotes have the same design regardless of which country they are printed in, the coins are different in design.
In April 1996, at a meeting of the Council of Ministers of Economics and Finance of the European Union (Ecofin) in Verona, it was decided that new European coins should have a single reverse side (reverse) and a national side (obverse), which will differ depending on the issuing state .
The national sides of the euro coins should reflect the cultural unity and national diversity in Europe. The obverse can represent the nature and culture of these countries, national heroes and state symbols. All this makes euro coins especially interesting for collectors.
In addition, according to the Regulation of the Council of Europe (EC) No. 975/98 of May 3, 1998 and the regulatory documents that replaced it, on the national side of euro coins of regular issue, 12 stars 5 must be depicted around the circumference - just like on the flag of Europe . In addition, the year and designation of the issuing state must be indicated.
All euro coins, regardless of which state they are minted for, are legal tender throughout the eurozone.
To develop the design of the common side of the euro coins, a competition was opened in 1996, to which each state of the eurozone sent the work of its most talented artists. Of the submitted 36 projects, a special commission selected 9 best works.
5. The European flag consists of 12 gold stars arranged in a circle on a blue background. Although it is usually associated with the European Union (EU), it was originally used by the Council of Europe (CE) and is intended to represent Europe as a whole and not any particular organization (such as the EU or the CE). After the emblem of the Pan-European Union proposed by the writer and politician Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi was rejected by Turkey due to Christian symbolism with a red cross on a golden sun located on an azure background, journalist Paul M. G Levy (Paul MG Levy) proposed a blue flag with gold stars. The number of stars on the flag is constant (12) and does not depend on the number of member states of the union. After many years of discussions about their number and position, the flag was adopted on December 8, 1955. Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, and on May 26, 1985 it was adopted by the European Community. Today, the flag is depicted on all euro banknotes, and its stars on euro coins.
As a result of a public opinion poll, the project of the artist of the Royal Belgian Mint Luc Luycx (Luc Luycx, b. 1958) won.
On coins of 1999 sample in denomination
1, 2 and 5 euro cents Luc Luix depicted the globe from the side of the European continent, the denomination is indicated on the left. On coins from 10 eurocents to 2 euros - a stylized map of the European Union. Moreover, on medium coins (10, 20 and 50 euro cents), the card is located on the left, and the denomination is on the right. And on large ones (1 and 2 euros) - on the contrary. All coins have 12 stars (according to the original number of euro area countries) and six parallel lines (a symbol of stability).
On June 7, 2005, the European Council decided that in connection with the enlargement of the European Union by 10 states, it is necessary to change the design of the single side of the euro coins in denominations of 10, 20, 50 cents, as well as 1 and 2 euros. The fact is that the states of Central and Eastern Europe that joined the European Union in 2004 were not displayed on the reverse of the 1999 sample. So, from January 1, 2007, coins with a new sample reverse were put into circulation. Now, according to the concept of "Europe without borders", on coins with a face value from 10 eurocents to 2 euros, the entire European continent is depicted, not divided by borders.
At the same time, the change in the design of the common side of euro coins in 2007 did not take place in all states of the euro area. On the coins of many countries, the reverse was updated only in 2008 (Table 1).
In the course of the transition to the common side of a single design in a number of countries in the euro area, coins with the wrong map were erroneously minted. For example, there are issues of the Portuguese 1-euro coin dated 2008, as well as the German 20-euro cent 2007, minted at the Stuttgart mint with the reverse of the old sample. In Finland, there was another case: the 2 euro coin of 2006 was minted with a common side of the new design.
|State||Year of the introduction of euro coins with a new type of reverse|
|Andorra||Accession to the euro area is scheduled for 2014.|
|Cyprus||in the euro area since 2008|
|Latvia||in the euro area since 2014|
|Malta||in the euro area since 2008|
|Slovakia||in the euro area since 2009|
|Slovenia||in the euro area since 2007|
|Estonia||in the euro area since 2011|
Such coins were issued in a very small circulation and belong to the category of coins with defective minting (Table 2). All regular issue euro coins have the so-called medal side orientation.
6. With a "medal" orientation of the sides (turning angle 0°), when the coin is rotated along the vertical axis, the reverse and obverse are located in the same direction: the top and bottom coincide. There is also a "coin" orientation of the sides (angle of rotation 180°), in this case, in order for the sides to coincide, it is necessary to turn the coin along the horizontal axis.
Table 2. Brief description of coins by denominations
|Value||Dia meter||Thick ness||Wei ght||Metal||edge|
|1 cent||16.25 mm||1.67 mm||2.30 g||copper plated steel||smooth|
|2 cents||18.75 mm||1.67 mm||3.06 g||copper plated steel||smooth with a groove around the circumference|
|5 cents||21.25 mm||1.67 mm||3.92 g||copper plated steel||smooth|
|10 cents||19.75 mm||1.93 mm||4.10 g||alloy "Northern gold" (Cu89 Al5 Zn5 Sn1 )||coarsely corrugated|
|20 cents||22.25 mm||2.14 mm||5.74 g||alloy "Northern gold" (Cu89 Al5 Zn5 Sn1 )||smooth with seven indentations ("Spanish flower" shape)|
|50 cents||24.25 mm||2.38 mm||7.80 g||alloy "Northern gold" (Cu89 Al5 Zn5 Sn1 )||coarsely corrugated|
|Value||Dia meter||Thick ness||Wei ght||Metal||edge|
|1 euro||23.25 mm||2.33 mm||7.50 g||Outer ring: Nickel brass (Cu75 Zn20 Ni5 ). The inner part is three-layer: Cu-Ni; Ni; Cu-Ni||corrugated with three smooth sections|
|2 euro||25.75 mm||2.20 mm||8.50 g||Outer ring: Cu-Ni. The inner part is three-layer: Cu75 Zn20 Ni5 ; Ni; Cu75 Zn20 Ni5||corrugated with lettering|
Table 3. Examples of inscriptions on edges of 2-euro coins from different countries
|State||The inscription on the edge||comment|
|Germany||from German "UNITY AND RIGHT AND FREEDOM" from "Song of the Germans"|
|Greece||from Greek "GREEK REPUBLIC"|
7. "Song of the Germans" (Das Lied der Deutschen) - a song written on August 26, 1841 by Hoffmann von Fallersleben to the melody of Joseph Haydn's "Imperial Song". At a meeting of the German National Assembly on August 11, 1922, the "Song of the Germans" was declared the national anthem of the Weimar Republic. After the reunification of Germany, the 3rd stanza of the "Song of the Germans" became the anthem of the FRG.
Table 3 (continued). Examples of inscriptions on edges of 2-euro coins from different countries
|State||The inscription on the edge||comment|
|Latvia||from Latvian "GOD BLESS LATVIA" - the name of the national anthem of Latvia|
|Lithuania||FREEDOM * UNITY * WELFARE * in Lithuanian|
|Malta||image of Maltese crosses between inversely located numbers 2|
|Netherlands||from Dutch "GOD WITH US"|
|Portugal||7 stylized castles and 5 coats of arms|
|Slovakia||from Slovak "SLOVAK REPUBLIC|
|Slovenia||S L O V E N 1 J A •||from Slovenian "SLOVENIA"|
|Finland||"FINLAND" in Finnish and Swedish, as well as three stylized lion heads|
|Estonia||"ESTONIA" in Estonian, direct and inverse, separated by a circle|
Each state decides for itself which inscription will be printed on the edge of a 2-euro coin (see Table 3).
It is worth noting that, despite the fact that the issue of euro cash began in 2002, the coins of some countries in the euro area are dated 1999, 2000 and 2001. (see Table 4). This is due to the fact that in each state the issuance of coins is regulated by its own "coin acts", which govern the production parameters of coins for each country.
Thus, Belgium, Spain, the Netherlands, Finland and France indicate the year of minting on their coins. On the coins of Austria, Germany, Greece, Italy, 10
Ireland, Luxembourg and Portugal indicate the year of issue.
Vatican City, Monaco and San Marino do not have their own coinage acts, their coins are minted in accordance with the act of minting of the state where their coins are minted.
Coins of the Vatican and San Marino are minted at the State Polygraphic Institute and the Mint of Italy, and they indicate the year of issue.
Coins for Monaco are minted at the Paris Mint. Since minting for this state began in 2001, the first euro coins of Monaco date back to 2001.
TablTable 4. Summary table of the euro area countries, the history of the withdrawal of national currencies from circulation and their fixed rates against the euro
|country||Currency previously used||Fixed exchange rate (equivalent to 1 euro)||Transition date|
|Austria||shilling = 100 groszy||13.7603||01/01/1999|
|Belgium||franc = 100 centimes||40.3399||01/01/1999|
|Germany||mark = 100 pfennigs||1.95583||01/01/1999|
|Greece||drachma = 100 lepta||340.750||01/01/2001|
|Ireland||pound = 100 pence||0.787564||01/01/1999|
|Spain||peseta = 100 centimos||166.386||01/01/1999|
|Italy||lira = 100 centesimos||1936.27||01/01/1999|
|Cyprus||pound = 100 cents||0.585274||01/01/2008|
|Latvia||lat = 100 centimes||0.702804||01.01.2014|
|Luxembourg||franc = 100 centimos||40.3399||01/01/1999|
|Malta||lira = 100 cents||0.429300||01/01/2008|
|Netherlands||guilder = 100 cents||2.20371||01/01/1999|
|Portugal||escudos = 100 centavos||200.482||01/01/1999|
|Slovakia||crown = 100 hellers||30.1260||01.01.2009|
|Slovenia||tolar = 100 stotins||239.640||01.01.2007|
|Finland||stamp = 100 pennies||5.94573||01/01/1999|
|France||franc = 100 centimos||6.55957||01/01/1999|
|Estonia||crown = 100 cents||15.6466||01.01.2011|
|country||Year of first release||End date of circulation of the national currency||Deadline for accepting old money|
|Austria||2002||02/28/2002||no limits no limits|
|Belgium||1999||02/28/2002||12/31/2004 no limits|
|Germany||2002||12/31/2001||no limits no limits|
|Ireland||2002||09.02.2002||no limits no limits|
|Latvia||2014||01/14/2014||no limits no limits|
|Luxembourg||2002||02/28/2002||12/31/2004 no limits|
|Slovakia||2009||01/16/2009||02.01.2014 no limits|
|Slovenia||2007||01/14/2007||31.12.2016 no limits|
|Estonia||2011||01/14/2011||no limits no limits|
Due to the difficult economic situation
in the European space, not all states are so eager to switch to a single
currency, like, for example, Latvia. Thus, in July 2013, Polish
Prime Minister Donald Tusk once again stated that his country did not intend to
introduce the euro until at least 2019.
Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and the Czech Republic are also in no hurry to switch to the euro. Three states that joined the European Union before 1999: Great Britain, Denmark and Sweden, decided not to switch to the euro. At the same time, the UK and Denmark are not required to join the eurozone without fail until their governments decide this issue: either by voting in parliament or through a referendum. Sweden, although formally obligated to join the euro area as soon as it fulfills all the necessary conditions, does not join the European Financial Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II), and this is one of the mandatory requirements for switching to the euro.
However, the enlargement of the eurozone is a continuous process within the European Union. The obligation to switch to the euro is stipulated in the accession agreements, in addition by the European Commission in 2004 it was decided not to take into account any more individual referendums on the introduction of the euro, with the exception of three states (Great Britain, Denmark and Sweden), with which there is an earlier agreement.
On July 1, 2013, another young Balkan country, Croatia, joined the European Union, becoming the 28th member of the community. Since January 2014, the euro area has been replenished with the 18th state - Latvia. Coins of the 4th dwarf state, which is not part of the European Union, but has received the right to issue its own euro coins, Andorra, should also appear. In 2015, the government of the Republic of Lithuania also plans to switch to the euro.
The eurozone is expanding, monarchs are being replaced, previously approved designs are being brought into line with the new recommendations of the European Commission. Thus, the variety of types of issued euro coins is increasing. All this, in turn, increases the interest of numismatists in the new currency and its coins. Seemingly the same, but so different. After all, as the motto of the European Union says - "Unity in diversity".