Index » World coins » America » Mexico
Mexican Coins catalog and price guide
Spanish Mexico - Viceroyalty of New Spain (1521-1821)
During the Spanish rule in Mexico, coins were minted in traditional Spanish denominations - escudos and reales (Escudo = 16 reales).Philipp V (1700-1746)
Ferdinand VI (1746-1759)
Charles III (1760-1788)
Charles IV (1788-1808)
Ferdinand VII (1808-1821)
Fearing a revolution, the Mexican elite initially relied on the metropolis. But when revolutionary fermentation began in Spain itself, the gentlemen spread to the camp of supporters of independence.
One of these defectors was Colonel Agustin de Iturbide. Joining the rebels, he captured Mexico City in 1821, where the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire" was promulgated. Iturbide proclaimed himself emperor under the name Agustin I and began to mint coins in denominations of 1/8 and 1/4 real (copper), 1/2 real, 1, 2, 4 and 8 reales (silver), 4 and 8 escudos (gold).
In March 1823 the Republic was established. During the First Mexican Republic, the lowest denomination was a 0.903 silver coin worth 1/2 real. This was followed by 1, 2 and 8 reales, which had the same silver content. In addition, 8 escudos were issued in gold of a rather low, 0.675 (under the emperor they minted in the 0.875). Later they began to mint silver 4 reales, as well as various copper parts of the real, of the most diverse type, which now have a high numismatic value.
In 1861-1867, Mexico had to endure foreign intervention. The Anglo-French-Spanish invasion led to the emergence of the second Mexican Empire with Maximilian I of Habsburg at the head (reigned 1864-1867). Under Maximilian, a decimal reform was carried out, the result of which was the introduction of the peso, equal to 100 centavos.
First Republic (1823-1863)
Second Empire (1863-1867)
Coins since 1867
The liberals who came to power held out until 1876, when the elected president was overthrown and General Porfirio Diaz came to power. The years of his reign are called "porphyriat" - the time of the oligarchic dictatorship, when freedoms were ruthlessly curtailed, the population became impoverished, and the oligarchs profited by appropriating land and attracting foreign investment on unfavorable terms for the country.
The design of coins at that time changed little, but there were a huge number of variations due to the presence of several mints. So, in 1900, four mints issued a coin of 10 centavos at once. In 1905, a coin of 2 centavos, which was previously absent in the line of denominations, appeared, and 5 centavos acquired an unusual circular pattern on the obverse and began to be minted from nickel.
In 1910, another revolution began, followed by a civil war. A woman on a horse appeared on the coins, waving branches and a burning torch. By 1916, about 20 different currencies were in circulation in Mexico, issued by warring army commanders and state governors.
In 1934, Lazaro Cardenas came to power. The nationalization of the economy and an active agrarian policy led to an economic recovery that continued until the crisis of the 1980s. The design of the Mexican coins of that time was distinguished by rare conservatism. But in 1936, a nod to the Indian heritage was made. On the reverse of the coins in 5 and 10 centavos appeared the image of the Aztec calendar.
In 1946, a coin of 20 centavos was issued, on the obverse of which was placed an image of the Pyramid of the Sun from the ancient city of Teotihuacan, against the backdrop of volcanoes and a Phrygian cap emitting rays. The following year, it was the turn to change images to pesos. The Mexicans could still afford to mint this money out of silver. On the obverse of the 1 peso coin there was a metal sample, a portrait and the name of Jose Maria Morelos, the commander in chief in the war for independence. A portrait of Cuauhtemoc, the last ruler of the Aztec state, was placed on a 5 peso coin.
By the beginning of the 80s there was a turn to the past, to the value of the ancient Indian civilizations, the heirs of which the Mexicans would like to see themselves. On the coins appears the head of the god Quetzalcoatl from the ancient city of Teotihuacan, the image of a ball game from the ancient city of Chincultic, with the inscription "Maya Culture", the image of the goddess Coyolxauca from the Aztec Great Temple in Mexico City. But inflation was unwinding, and only the leaders of the war of independence were placed on the face value of 50, 100, 200, 1000, and then 5000 pesos.
By the end of the 1980s, inflation was stabilized and the peso was fixed against the dollar, but already in the 1990s a new crisis broke out. And on January 1, 1993, the denomination was held. Back in 1992, bimetallic 1, 2, 5 "new pesos" were issued without any portraits and 10 pesos with the image of the "stone of the sun" of the Aztecs. The new stainless steel and aluminum bronze centavos also did not have portraits. However, inflation cannot be stopped so easily, and soon 20 and 50 new pesos with portraits had to be minted.
Brief catalogMexican Republic (1863-1905)
Modern coins (since 1905)
Coins by nominal1000, 500 and 100 pesos
Commemorative coinsCentenary of the Constitution (1957)
Soccer World Cup 1986
Fiftieth Anniversary of Oil Expropriation (1988)
Centenary Family gold coins
100 pesos - 180th Anniversary of Federation
100 pesos - Attractions of the States
100 pesos - Numismatic heritage of Mexico
100 pesos no series
5 pesos - Centenary of the Revolution
5 pesos - Bicentennial of Independence
Silver bullion Liberty series