History of Provence and Toulouse
Margrave of Provence
The margrave was formed in 1062. In 1125, as a result of a treaty between count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer and the count of Toulouse Alfonso, the northern part of Provence departed Toulouse, and the southern part - to Barcelona.
Raymond VI (1194-1222) count of Toulouse
Raymond VI (1156-1222) - son of Count Raymond V and Constance, daughter of King Louis VI. He inherited the county of Toulouse, Saint-Gilles, Narbonne, the margrave of Gotha and the margrave of Provence after the death of his father in 1194.
Raymond reigned in the midst of the struggle with the Albigensians (Cathars) sect. However, according to today's notions, it is difficult to call a sect - the Albigensians were the majority of the population in the south of France, and Raymond himself sympathized with them, which, of course, did not like the popes, who had twice excommunicated him. In 1208, a crusade against the Albigensians began. At first, Raymond did not help, but did not counteract, however, in 1211 he switched to open resistance. Things were not going well, and in 1213 he was forced to flee to England, and in 1214 he surrendered to the Pope. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council deprived Raymond VI of the rights to its lands and gave them to Simon de Montfort, leader of the Albigensian crusade, leaving Raymond with his son only Provence margrave. Understandably, they disagreed with this state of affairs. The decision of the cathedral did not really mean anything. The time was such that one who has more power is right. Yes, and the population (in fact, the same Cathars), for obvious reasons, supported its graph. In 1216, father and son entered Marseille, then captured the fortress of Boker, and in 1217 Toulouse. In 1218, de Montfort died near Toulouse. Raymond VI was 62 years old (a very respectable age at that time, few people even lived to such years), and he actually transferred the business to his son. In 1222, Raymond VI died.
Raymond VII (1222-1249) count of Toulouse
Raymond VII (1197-1249) - son of Raymond VI and Joanna (daughter of King Henry II of England). Raymond VI, by the way, was married six times (!), but had children only married to Joanna.
So, after the death of Simon de Montfort, Raymond continued the struggle with Amory de Montfort, the son of Simon. Amory appealed for help to the king, who in 1219 sent an army under the command of the future Louis VIII. He laid siege to Toulouse, in which Raymond-son locked, but could not take it. In 1222 Raymond VI died and Raymond VII became the full owner of his lands, most of which, however, still had to be won.
In 1224, Amory VI de Montfort, tired of fighting, waived his rights in favor of the French crown. In 1225, the cathedral in Bourges excommunicated Raymond from the church. In 1226, Louis VIII set off on a new crusade against the Albigensians, but became ill with dysentery and died. Regent under the juvenile Louis IX became the widow of Louis VIII Blanca of Castile and the crusade continued. The forces were not equal, Raymond repented and was taken back to the bosom of the church. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (or the Treaty of Mo, 1229), he lost Boker, Carcassonne, the Provence Margrave and about half of his possessions. In addition, he pledged to give his only daughter Jeanne for the king's younger brother, Alphonse de Poitiers, and in the case of a childless marriage, all of his possessions went to the crown (later, that’s what happened). Raymond undertook to pursue the Cathars and establish the Inquisition. After that, he tried several times to marry (previously divorcing his existing wife) so that possible heirs could claim his ownership, but each time the matter ended in nothing due to the opposition of the king and the popes.
In 1249 Raymond set off on a crusade organized by Louis IX, but died on the way.
Alphonse I (1241-1271)
Alphonse (1220-1271) - the third son of Louis VIII and Blanca of Castile. In 1241, according to the will of his father, he received Poitou. At the same time, marriage was concluded with the daughter and heiress of the Count of Toulouse Raymond VII. Since part of the lands transferred to Alphonse formally belonged to the English king, he did not fail to come out to defend his rights, and Raymond, the father-in-law with his army, was also in the army of Henry III of England :). This, however, is not surprising, from the marriage was the result of the Paris Treaty of 1229, according to which the defeated count, in addition to territorial concessions, yielded his daughter to the prince. The French royal army broke this coalition and Count Raymond submitted to King Louis IX (Alphonse elder brother).
In 1249, Alphonse , a couple with the resigned father-in-law, went on another crusade organized by Louis (who, by the way, earned the nickname "Holy" not only for crusades. But that is another story.). On the way, Raymond died and Alphonse became Count of Toulouse.
In 1250, he, together with Charles of Anjou, returned to France, where in the absence of the king and after the death of Blanca of Castile (1252), the brothers became regents. Alphonse lived in Paris, but paid great attention to his possessions in southern France - he divided the territory into seneschals, tried to unify the city law, protected the citizens from the feudal lords. He supported the Inquisition; in 1249, he organized the first in the history of the county persecution of Jews. As they write, Alphonse de Poitiers was distinguished by a despotic character. In those days, there were not many lambs among the feudal lords, but apparently, he stood out even against their background.
In 1270, Alphonse set off on another crusade, in which and Louis IX and himself died. Alphonse had no children, and his domain was added to the royal domain.