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The coins of the Twelve Caesars B.C. 48 to A. D. 96. - GALBA




[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Galba, a.d. 68-69, was the seventh. The six who preceded him under this title were: Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-Ai; Augustus, b.c. 31- a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 41-54, and Nero. 54-68. The five who succeeded him: Otho, 69; Vitellius. 69; Vespasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.]

Servius Sulpicius Galba Beventh of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome a.d. 68 to 69, was horn at Terracina, twenty miles southeast of Rome, December 24, b.c. 3. The reigning Emperor was Augustus. His father was Sulpicius Galba, an orator of ordinary abilities, a humpbacked man ; Consul a.d. 22, who committed suicide from political disappointments a.d. 36. His mother was Mummla Achaica, great-granddaughter of Mummius, who destroyed Corinth b.c 146.

At her death her husband married Livia Ocellina, a relative of Livia, wife of the Emperor Augustus, who adopted the subject of this sketch, and changed his name to L. Livius Occlla. which he bore at the time of his elevation to the purple. It was not considered, however, that he was a relative of Augustus, whose family became extinct in the death of Nero. Galba early displayed such traits of character that both the Emperors, Augustus and Tiberius, assured him he would one day be at the head of the Roman world. His advancement, under such high patronage, was sure. Before attaining the legitimate age, he was invested with curule offices. He was Praetor a.d. 20, for which he had the province of Aquitania (southern France) assigned him. He was made Consul a.d. 33, and carried on a successful war in Germany.

Upon the death of Caligula, January 24, a.d. 41, he was named as a candidate for the throne, but preferred living in a private station. In acknowledgment of this self-reserve, Claudius, the successor of Caligula, showed him much kindness and attention. A.D. 45 and 46 he was sent to the province of Africa, which had been greatly disturbed by the licentiousness of the military, and the incursions of barbarians. There he restored peace, restrained the soldiers, and acquired new honors. For these services he was endowed with the oraamenta triianpIuUia, and the dignity of three priesthoods — the Quindecemviri, the Sodales Titii, and the Augustales. During the reign of Nero, a.d. 54 to 68, he lived in strict retirement, dreading to become the victim of that tyrant's suspicion. A.D. 61, Nero gave him the province of Hispania Tarrocon, which he governed for eight years. This brings us to the period when the death of Nero elevated Galba, at the advanced age of seventy years, to the throne of the Empire.

The deposition of the wretch Nero, who had so long disgraced the purple, was followed closely by his death. The sword which had destroyed so many was put to his own throat, and the Empire stood without a head. Galba, being in command in Spain, was warmly solicited by C. Julius Vindex to unite with him in an insurrection, which in a.d. 68 the latter was conducting against Nero., The messengers to Galba assured him that "he was the most eminent among the generals of the time, and the proper successor to Nero, whose doom was clearly impending." Vindex exhorted him to arise and vindicate the rights of oppressed humanity. The old general, having already learned that emissaries of Nero were in Spain seeking to murder him, resolved at once to take the perilous step and place himself at the head of the Roman world.

He assembled his troops, harangued them upon the cruelties of Nero, and was at once proclaimed Imperator. Organizing his forces, he gathered around him a council of elders in the manner of a Senate, and affirmed to all inquirers that he was acting only as the legate of S. P. Q. R. Upon the announcement of the death of Nero, Galba took the title of Caesar, and, accompanied by SaMus Otho, then governor of Lusitania, and afterward Emperor, went to Rome, where ambassadors from all countries soon arrived to do him homage as their lawful sovereign. But here the better part of his history comes abruptly to an end. His good qualities failed him. .Severity and avarice, vices of old age, became prominent in his public life. Among the soldiers, whose suffrages had given him the crown, he introduced unpopular changes, and punished with severity the slightest opposition.

The donatives promised the military upon his accession were withheld, and various reports concerning his niggardly and miserly character were sedulously spread through Rome to increase the popular discontent. In addition to this, he was completely under the sway of three favorites, and the arbitrary manner in which he acted under their influence showed that the times were but little better for him than they had been for Nero. The first open outbreak, however, was among the legions of Germany, who sent word to the Praetorians at Rome that they disliked the Emperor who had been created in Spain, and that all the legion* should have a voice in the selection of Emperor. Similar manifestations were made by the legions in Africa. Having no heir, Galba adopted Piso Licinianus, a noble young Roman, as his coadjutor and successor, hoping thus to appease the discontent. But it rather increased it, particularly as Galba neglected the popular gifts customarily made by Emperors upon their accession. The end was not far off.

Salvius Otho, who had expected the honor of the Imperial adoption, now secretly formed a conspiracy among the troops, and within six days after the event just named it broke out. Galba, from the first, despaired. Then, regaining courage, he went out to meet the rebels. But as he was carried across the forum in his sedan-chair, unable, from age and infirmity, to mount his horse, a troop of cavalry, lying in wait, rushed forward and cut him down near the Lacus Fortius. A private soldier took his head to Otho, who in the meantime had been proclaimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guards; and the dishonored remains of Galba were buried by a private citizen in his own garden. The reiteration of the word Imperator upon the coins of Galba requires a paragraph here. The ancient forms of the word were Endoperator and Induparator.

We have spoken of the custom of the Roman soldiers of hailing their general Imperator immediately after a victory. That everything in the theory of the Roman constitution was subordinate to military life need not be repeated. The declaration of Jesus (Luke xi, 21. 22) applies most accurately to this people: " When a strong man armed keepeth his palace his goods are in peace; but when a stronger than he shall come upon him and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein he trusteth and divideth his spoils." This was the history of Rome, "the nation of the strong arm." By establishing permanent camps all around the extended frontiers of the Empire; by keeping movable forces always on foot; by enrolling every able-bodied freeman as a soldier and forcing him to service; by provoking nations to war and then subduing them and attaching them to the Empire, the office of a soldier was not only made honorable but the only sure field of promotion.

This is seen either in work or type upon almost every coin of Rome. The spear; the parazoniam (or general's staff); the Gate of the Camp (emblem of security); the laurel (badge of victory); the temple of Janus, emblem alternately of peace and war; the trophies; the figures of captives suggesting the same fierceness and cruelty of the soldiery that led them to mock and scourge Jesus before crucifying him, and to slay their prisoners rather than suffer them to escape (Acts xxvii, 47); — these and a host of attributions of the god Mars upon Roman coinage, prove how important the military profession was deemed, and how honorable was the title of " Chief Soldier " (Imperator) when ascribed to the Emperor himself. When the legious gained a victory, then the soldiers, with shouts of joy, saluted their general by the title of Imperator.

His victors wreathed their fasces with laurel, as did also the soldiers their spears and javelins. He immediately sent letters, wrapped round with laurel, to the Senate, to inform them of his success. The Senate decreed a thanksgiving to the gods and confirmed to the general his title of Imperator. The titles assumed or accepted by Augustus, and adopted as matters of course by his successors, included Princeps Senatus, Imperium Proconsulare, Divus, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Augur, Tribunitia Potestas, Regimen Moruni, Censor, Senator, etc. etc., and finally Imperator. All these accrued to Galba when the Army and Senate had proclaimed him Emperor. The latter title then denoted the supreme command over the whole of the military force of the Empire, the right of making war and peace, and the power of life and death over all the citizens. This latter was derived from the most ancient theory that the general of the army had that, power over his soldiers, and that without appeal. It is easily seen, therefore, that the titular dignity of IMPERATOR would stand out prominently upon coins. The attributions of the goddess Vesta form favorite groups upon the Roman coinage.

This goddess is usually seen upon the reverses of our specimens, seated upon a square throne, but sometimes standing. Her left foot is supported by a low stool; her right hand rests upon her lap and holds a patera. In her left hand she bears the hasta pura, her wand of divinity. The origin of this word, Vesta, according to Sir Isaac Newton, is from the Greek Hestia, a fire. Her worship was early introduced into Italy. Virgil describes Aeneas bearing from Troy the statue of Vesta and her sacred fire. Numa built the first temple to Vesta at Rome, at the foot of the Palatine hill, and appointed four priests, called Vestalia, whose duty it was to preserve the palladium, or statue of Pallas-Minerva, and to keep the sacred fire ever burning. The most affecting idea connected with this goddess is that of the sanctity of the domestic hearth {hestia), the /reside, the symbol of social union. Vesta was the goddess of virginity. At Rome six virgins, called Vestals, presided over her sacred flame.

Her festival was celebrated in June and styled Vestalia. In the forum at Rome was a statue to the Stata Mater, so placed that she might protect the pavement from the effect of the fires which used to be made there in the night time. If one of her vestal virgins violated the vow of perpetual chastity the culprit was buried alive. All this, and more to the same effect, was suggested to a Roman when he took in his hand a coin of Galba and read upon it the attributions of the far-famed deity, Vesta. And, as the coins of a mintage went into every hand— the horny hand of mechanic and farmer, the scarred hand of the soldier, the hand of the delver in the sunless mine, of the hunter upon the mountains, of the dweller of the cities, of the mariner upon the rounded sea, and of the hermit in his cell,— few could be ignorant upon this or any other point connected with the State-religion.




Of nine coins, in silver and bronze, of the Emperor Galba, from the illustrations on the fourth page. [The student will observe in these Readings:

First, That the size of a Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture.

Second, That the metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,—AV (aururri) standing for gold; AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words indiscriminately used in Numismatics.

Third, That there are few punctuation points on coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facilitate Readings.

Fourth, That we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and,

Fifth, That these Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.]

No. 1, AE. This medallion is a piece of extraordinary elegance, and considering the brevity of Galba's reign (only seven months) the mintmaster must have been put under extraordinary pressure to fashion the dies and perfect so large and beautiful a piece in so short a time. A Medallion in Roman currency bears I he same relation to a Coin as an official Medal made in the American mint does to a coin. Medallions were larger than pieces of money. They were prepared with more care than ordinary coins, and were used chiefly as gifts to the grandees of the nation, also for preservation in cabinets as monuments of the age and of the prince. Roman Medallions are rare and costly, and not found in many American collections. Not having been used for currency, they are ordinarily in a good state of preservation. The types, devices and inscriptions upon them are all found upon coins of corresponding date.

Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right; beardless; wearing the paludamentum. or general's cloak, buttoned on the right shoulder. The nose and chin, like those of Vitellius. are prominent. He is seventy one years old. Inscription (abbreviated): SER SVLPI GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG; (supplied)—Servius Sulpicius Galba Imperator Caesar Augustus. Reverse. An Allocution scene. The Emperor standing upon a suagestum to the right; a foot soldier in front. Galba is addressing three soldiers, representatives of the Maniples of the cavalry, and of the Legion itself. These are distinguished by the standards they bear; one, displaying an open hand, is the flag of the maniples, three of which made a cohort; one, with a square flag or vexillum, represents the cavalry; the third, with the eagle, represents the Legion as a whole. The latter has a shield displaying fulmina (thunderbolts). The shield of the cavalry soldier presents a protuberant umbo, or boss.

Behind the Emperor stands the Commander of the forces, holding him by the right arm. The whole scene is expressed with much spirit. Inscription: ADLOCVTIO —"Delivery of Address." S. C, Senatus Consulto, implies that this medallion was struck "by Decree of the Senate," when Galba had addressed his troops upon their declaring him Imperator. It is thought that the person with his back to Galba is enforcing the Emperor's address upon the listeners. The attachment of the Roman troops to their standards was inspired by the united influences of religion and military honor. The Eagle which glittered in the front of the Legion was the object of their fondest idolatry; nor was it esteemed less impious than ignominious to abandon that sacred symbol in the hour of danger. Tacitus style the standards Bellorum dii, "gods of battles." In camp they were placed in a chapel by themselves, and, with the other deities, received the religious worship of the troops. In the military oath, the Roman soldier swore "never to desert his standard; to submit his own will to the command of his leaders, and to sacrifice his life for the safety of the Emperor and the Empire." This oath was taken with every circumstance of solemnity, and was annually renewed by the troops on the first of January of each year. The first cohort of the Legion, consisting of 1,105 soldiers, claimed the post of honor and the custody of the Eagle.

No. 2, AE. A Remission coin of rare type. * Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the left. Features thin, careworn and ghastly; yet the likeness agrees with that of others in the series. Beardless; bust undraped. It is not infrequent that while one side of a coin displays good art, the other is inferior. This proves that two sets of engravers, not equals in skill, worked upon the same piece. In such cases it is usually the Obverse that has the greater merit; but in the specimen before us the reader will perceive that the best skill is displayed upon the Revebsedie, which, so far as the architectural part is concerned, is handsomely executed. Inscription: " Sergius Galba Imperator Augustus."

Reverse. A triumphal arch, above which are two horsemen to the left. The preceding Emperors had imposed some onerous tax, called the Quadrigessima ("fortieth part"), which Galba remitted; and such was the popular joy that the Senate was moved to order the present coin, acknowledging the Emperor's bounty to the citizens. Looking at these horsemen, the reader will recall the picture of the equestrian statue of Peter the Great, at St. Petersburg, Russia. Approaching from the left is a procession of four captives, with hands bound behind them. One of the four has entered the portico. Legend: QVADRIGENS REMISSAE,— intended, probably, for quadrigessimum remissae,—" For remitting the tax of the fortieth." S. C, Senatus consulto, in the exergue — " By Decree of the Senate." Much was written by Eckhel and Spanheim concerning this coin, and it cannot exactly be determined to what particular tax the remission refers; but whatever it was we know that Vespasian reimposed it, for he did this to all the taxes remitted by his predecessors, so that the popular joy was temporary enough, and nothing but coins remained to prove that there had been a relief. Reference to the history of Rome will show how burdensome were the taxes under which the people groaned.

No. 3, AR. Obverse. Unlaureate head of Galba to the right. Hair cropped short; beardless; bust undraped. Inscription: " Imperator Sergius Galba Augustus." Reverse. A Civic Crown made of oak leaves and acorns. This was donated to Galba for preserving the life of a citizen. Virgil styles it the Civilis Quercus, as made of oak products. Legend (abbreviated): S P QR OB C S; (supplied) — Senatus Populusque Romanns ob Servatos Cives— "The Senate and Roman People, for saving citizens." The variety of crowns seen in the coins of Roman Emperors is not large. The simple laurel wreath sufficed to express the highest dignity.

The radiate crown grew slowly into use. In the Diocletian era the gem crowned coronet is seen. But as the municipal symbols are decorated with so many patterns, we make a list here of those that appear upon coins. Engravings of them are found upon the coin-sheet of Caligula: The Civic Crown (Corona Civica) was deemed by a Roman the highest reward he could receive. It was made of oak leaves and acorns, and given to one who had saved the life of a citizen. Upon coins it is usually expressed by the words OB CTVEM SERVATVM — " For preserving a citizen," within a wreath of oak leaves. When the man who wore this crown entered an assembly, the audience rose up as a mark of respect. The Mural Crown ( Corona muralis) was given to the man who first scaled the walls of a besieged city. The Naval Crown (Corona navalis) or classica, or rostrata, went for a naval exploit. The Siege Crown (Corona obsidimialis) was made of grass, and given to the general who released an army from a blockade. Camp Crown (Corona eastrensis or vallaris), to him who first entered the enemy's camp. This was made in form of palisade. Triumphal Crown (Corona triumphaXis). The name explains the purpose. Ovation Crown (Corona ovalis). This was given to a conquering general at an ovation.

No. 4, AE. A Greek Imperial. Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right. Features, etc., as previously described. Inscription (abbreviated): 2EPOYI rAABA ayto KAI5 2EBA—"To Sergius Galba. the Emperor Caesar, the Augustus." (Observe the substitution of Servius for Sergius.) Reverse. The head of Isls to the right, marked with the lotus-flower, emblem of Egypt. The arrangement of the hair is elaborate. The letters LA imply " Of the year 1," the first (and only) year of Galba's reign, viz. a.d. 68-9.

No. 5, AR. Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right. Features, etc., as previously noted. Inscription: " Imperator Galba." Reverse. Two military figures facing each other. One bears a shield with two spears, the other a short javelin. Legend: GALLIA HISPANIA. Spain and Gaul are represented as about to join right hands, in sign of concord, because they first proclaimed Galba Emperor; for Gaul began to be tumultuous against Nero under Julius Vindex, and Galba was saluted Emperor while in Spain by almost all the cities of Spain and Gaul. In addition to this coin, there is another denarius with the word GALLIA for a Legend. This has the head of a female, before which are two wheat heads. Behind are a shield and two javelins. Another denarius has HISPANIA on the Reverse, with the female at full length; in her right hand, wheat heads and a poppy; in her left, a shield. The purpose of these two coins is similar to that of the first.

No. 6, AE. Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right. Features aged and careworn. Inscription (abbreviated): IMP SER SVLP GALBA CAES AVG TR P; (supplied) —Imperator Sergius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus; Tribunitia Potestate. The last expression signifies, "Exercising the Tribunitian Power." This title, TR P, which Roman Emperors valued so highly that it often appears upon coins struck as well in Greek as Latin, must be read in the ablative case — Tribunitia Potestate, "Exercising the Tribunitian Power." To understand the importance of the office we must refer to the celebrated insurrection by ihe plebeians, B.C. 493, and the grant made them then by the patricians, that henceforth they should have representatives of the tribes, or common people, styled Tribunes. The name was borrowed from a similar officer of the military. The persons of the Tribunes were made sacrosancti (sacred and inviolable). No patrician could be made a Tribune unless first adopted into a plebeian family. B.C. 130 a law was enacted that none should be made a Tribune save a Senator. The number of these popular representatives was ten. They were elected annually at the Comitia Tributa, and entered upou their office December 10.

They wore no mark of dignity, and had only one officer, the Viator, to go before them. At judgment they sat on benches (smbsellia); but on all occasions they had the precedence, and every one was obliged to rise in their presence. Their power was simply negative, and was symbolized in the VETO — "I forbid it." Like all other men, the popular Tribunes accumulated power, and used it often tyrannically, even to ordering a Consul to prison. Their jurisdiction, however, was confined to the city of Rome and a mile (mille passuvm) around it. Their door3 were open day and night to receive the requests and complaints ot the wretched. To interrupt a Tribune while speaking was an offense that called for severe penalty. The first civil blood shed at Rome was B.C. 133, when the Gracchi brothers suffered death for their bold defense of the Tribunitian office. And now we see why the Emperors sought this office so eagerly. It made them the representatives of the people; made their persons sacrosancti; gave them the right to call the Senate at pleasure; to assemble the people; to be appealed to in all cases, and gave them other important privileges. Augustus got the Senate to confer it upon him for life. Afterward, at the beginning of a reign, and upon other solemn occasions, this grant was renewed to his successors.

They were then said to be Tribunitia Potestate donati; hence the years of their government were called " the years of their Tribunitian Power," which are found very often marked upon their coins. This, however, was not computed from the first day of January (as the Consulship), nor the 10th of December, as with Tribunes when popularly elected; but from the day on which they assumed the Empire. Augustus was, by decree of the Senate, invested with the Tribunitian Power for life, that he might lay anything he pleased before the Senate, as, previous to that time, no one could make a proposition to that body save the Consul. This grant was afterward made, as a matter of course, to his successors. The people, however, continued to elect Tribunes upon the earlier theory, and doubtless found them useful in representing their wants and interests to the despotic ruler above them; but they had only the shadow of their former power; or, as Pliny expresses it, inanem umbram et sine honore nomen. They seem to have retained this even to the time of Constantine the Great (a.d. 308-337), who abolished it, with other ancient offices, when he instituted a form of government upon the Oriental theory. In the coins the title is variably written TR P, TR POT, TRIB POT, etc.

No. 7, AE. Obverse. Unlaureate head of Galba to the right. Features, etc., as in the preceding. Inscription (supplied): Sulpicio Galbae Augusto Imperatori Patri Patriae—"To SulpiciuH Galba; the Emperor; the Father of the Country." Placing names in the dative case is not common in Latin inscriptions. Reverse. A Temple standing in such relation to the eye that one side and end are visible; flight of steps to the vestibule. Legend: L CAN AGRIPPAE II VIR. The latter are read "Corinth." The sentence embodies the name of the Duiim Vir of the mint at Corinth, viz. Lucius Caninus Agrippa. This is found in other coins of the same period, one of which reads, " Rome and the Emperor." No. 8, AE. A Greek Imperial. Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right; aged and deeply wrinkled. Inscription (supplied): 2EPOYI TAABA AYTOKPATOPI KAIS 2EBA2T—"To Servius Galba, the Emperor Caesar Augustus." Reverse. The goddess l6is to the right, bearing upon her head the lotus flower, as No. 4. She was the principal genius, the tutelary deity of Egypt; the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. She was to the Egyptians what Ceres was to the Greeks and Romans. Afterward Isis was made the equivalent to the Moon, as Osiris to the Sun. The letters LA refer, like No. 4. to the first year of Galba's reign.

No. 9, AE. Obverse. The laureate head of Galba to the right. Beardless; wears the palndametum, as in No. 1. Inscription: " Sergius Galba Imperator Caesar Augustus." Reverse. Pallas, the elegant symbol of the Eternal City; a female sitting on a cuirass to the left. Right hand supported by hasta pura; crested helmet on head; left arm resting on the upper edge of her shield; right foot rests on helmet on the ground. In exergue, ROMA; in the field, S C — Senatus Consulto, "By Decree of the Senate." An accomplished author gives these additional details of this beautiful coin: "The lower part of her shield rests upon other shields, by the side of which there is leg-armor (pcrea). Her clothes, reaching to the feet, are displayed in rich folds at the left side. She has assumed the most graceful and elegant attitude, showing perfect ease and repose. The whole is a complete and artistic study."

To compare the capacity of the great mint at Rome, in the time of Galba, with the various mints of the Uuited States, we give extracts from the official reports of 1876. A Senator had said there "is a limit to our ability to coin silver pieces, and mints cannot be improvised in a year." The director of the mint replies, " as the result of experience," that keeping everything in good repair, the capacity of all the mints for coining small silver is about twenty-four million dollars per annum. In August, 1876, there was coined, in gold, 84,231,240; trade dollars, $557,- 200; small silver, $2,346,610; minor coins, $17,700. Total, $7,152,250. All were kept running through the month to their utmost capacity and without interruption. The number of pieces was 8.839,562.

Their weight was as follows: Gold—seven and three-quarters tons; silver— trade dollars, sixteen and three-quarters tons; small silver, sixty-four and one-half tons; minor coinage, two and one-half tons. The four pairs of coins figured at the bottom of the coin-sheet represent the most ancient coinage of Aegina and Persia, and will be referred to in other sheets of this series. Besides the nine cuts given of Galba's mintage, we have descriptions of a number of denarii as follows:

1. Boni Eventus—" Of the Fortunate Approach." The type is a male figure standing nude; in right hand a patera, in the left, wheat-head.

2. Concordia Provinciarnm —" The Harmony of the Provinces." Type, a female figure stolated, standing; in the right hand a branch, in left, a cornucopia.

3. Fortuna Augusli —" The Fortunate of the Augustus." Type, the figure of Fortune, a female, standing; in the right hand a ship's helm, in the left, a cornucopia.

4. Gallia —" Gaul." Type, the head of a female, before which are two wheat-heads; behind, a shield and two lances.

5. Hispania—"Spain." Type, a female figure; in her right hand, wheat-heads and poppies, in left, a shield.

6. The same epigraph. Type, the head of a woman with two javelins.

7. Pax Augusti — " The Peace of Augustus;" or, still better, "Peace, the tutelar deity of the Emperor." Type, a female standing; in right hand, a branch and a caducaeus, her left hand ou a lowered shield.

8. Reslituta Numidia —. " Numidia Restored." Type, the head of a female with elegant necklace.

9. Roma Renascens— '" The New-springing Rome." Type, a female helmeted, holding forth a Victoriola iu her right hand.

10. Roma Victrix—" Rome the Conqueror." Type, the idealized figure of Rome (or Pallas) standing; in right hand a branch, in left a spear; at her right foot a globe. The Senate had solemnly pronounced Nero an enemy, and Roma is here represented as gaining an illustrious advantage through his death.


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